The Berberis orthobotrys belongs to Berberidaceae (the Barberry family). It is a deciduous shrub that is distributed from Afghanistan to India, Pakistan, Nepal, and China. It grows in mixed forests at altitudes of 2000 to 3500 m and is 1 to 2 m tall. The stems are dark red to light brown and grooved, with usually three spines 1 to 2.5 cm long. The leaves are obovate to oblanceolate, with 3 to 5 per node, but they vary in size. The flowers are yellow, bisexual, and bloom in clusters of 5 to 20. The fruit is an ovate berry with several seeds, shiny and red when ripe.